Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique used when a person’s heartbeat and breathing have stopped, as well as he is unconscious. CPR helps to keep a continuous flow of oxygenated blood to the brain, or else the brain will die without an oxygen supply. Hence, CPR plays an important role in keeping the brain alive during emergencies.
For the first 4 minutes when the person stops breathing and the heart stops pumping, it is stated that the victim is in a state of clinical death where it could be reversible by performing a CPR to ensure an oxygen flow to the brain. After 4-6 minutes without oxygen, the brain cells start to die and 10 minutes onwards, the brain is dead. This stage is called a biological death where it is irreversible and the victim cannot be revived.
This article will show you the way to perform an effective CPR, which is encouraged by National Heart Association of Malaysia (NHAM).
CPR Guidelines for Adults
When you want to do CPR, always remember the keywords: D-R-C-A-B
D – Danger
- Make sure the surrounding is safe and no danger for the victim.
R – Response, Rescue
- Check for the victim’s response – shack the shoulder and ask “Are you OK?”.
- If there is no response, ask for help to call 999 and get an Automated External Defibrillators (AED).
- Check for the pulse at the carotid artery (neck) for about 5 seconds (not more than 10 seconds).
- If there is no pulse, then start to do the CPR.
C – Chest Compressions
- Make sure the victim is lying on a flat surface.
- Position yourself at the victim’s side (between neck and shoulder).
- Put the heel of one hand on the victim’s chest center (lower half of the breastbone) and the heel of another hand on the first hand. Keep your arms straight when doing chest compressions.
- Push hard for at least 5 cm (2 inches) and not more than 6 cm (2.4 inches) for each compression.
- The compression rate is 100 to 120 per minute.
A – Airway
- To open the victim’s airway, tilt the victim’s head back and lift the chin gently (Head Tilt – Chin Lift).
- Jaw Thrust is used when it is suspected injury on head or neck.
B – Breathing
- Rescue breathing is usually mouth-to-mouth (For safety reason, only perform a mouth-to-mouth breathing when a face shield is available).
- If the victim’s mouth is injured or cannot be opened, perform a mouth-to-nose breathing.
- Pinch the victim’s nose while doing the mouth-to-mouth breathing.
- Give the first breath and notice whether the chest rises. If the chest rises, give the second breath. If it does not, do the Head Tilt – Chin Lift again before giving the second breath.
- A complete cycle of CPR consists of 30 compressions and 2 breathing. Perform a total of 5 cycles of CPR before checking the victim’s pulse again. If still no pulse, perform another 5 cycles of CPR until the pulse resumes or ambulance arrives.
- If there is pulse but no breathing, perform only rescue breathing for 1 breath every 5 seconds (12 breaths per minute).
- If you have an AED, turn it on and follow the instructions. If the AED is not available, perform CPR again until the ambulance arrives.
The CPR guidelines for infants (less than 1 year old) and children (1 year old to puberty age) are quite similar to those for adults.
The table below shows the key similarities and differences of CPR for adults, infants, and children.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Review Date: October 29, 2018 | Last Modified: October 29, 2018