Diazoxide

By Medically reviewed by hellodoktor

Generic Name: Diazoxide Brand Name(s): Diazoxide and Diazoxide.

Uses

What is Diazoxide used for?

Diazoxide is commonly used to treat very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Certain conditions (such as tumor on the pancreas, cancer, leucine sensitivity) can cause the release of too much insulin. Insulin is a natural substance that lowers blood sugar. This drug works by preventing insulin release from the pancreas, helping to return the blood sugar to normal levels. Diazoxide is a thiazide drug, but has no diuretic (“water pill”) effects like other thiazides.

Diazoxide should not be used to treat low blood sugar from poor nutrition/diet (functional hypoglycemia).

How should I take Diazoxide?

Take this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor, usually 2 to 3 times daily (every 8 to 12 hours). Your doctor may direct you to follow a special diet for your condition. Consult your doctor, pharmacist, or dietician for more details.

Do not switch between the capsule and suspension form of this medication without talking with your doctor first. Your dose may need to be adjusted. If you are using the suspension, shake the bottle thoroughly before each dose. Carefully measure the dose using a special measuring device/spoon. Do not use a household spoon because you may not get the correct dose. Do not use the suspension if it has turned a dark color. Discard it.

The dosage is based on your weight, medical condition, and response to treatment. You will need to check your blood sugar and check your urine for sugar and ketones regularly as directed and share the results with your doctor. Your doctor will adjust the dose based on these tests. Your doctor may change your dose frequently when you first start taking the drug to find the best dose for you. Follow your doctor’s directions carefully.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day.

Tell your doctor if your condition persists or worsens after 2 to 3 weeks.

How do I store Diazoxide?

Diazoxide is best stored at room temperature away from direct light and moisture. To prevent drug damage, you should not store Diazoxide in the bathroom or the freezer. There may be different brands of Diazoxide that may have different storage needs. It is important to always check the product package for instructions on storage, or ask your pharmacist. For safety, you should keep all medicines away from children and pets.

You should not flush Diazoxide down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. It is important to properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist for more details about how to safely discard your product.

Precautions & warnings

What should I know before using Diazoxide?

Before taking diazoxide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other thiazides (such as hydrochlorothiazide); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: low blood minerals (low potassium blood levels), diabetes, heart disease (such as heart failure, past heart attack), kidney disease, gout, liver disease.

The suspension (liquid) form of this medication contains alcohol. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, liver disease, or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid alcohol in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

This medication may raise your blood sugar too high under certain conditions. For example, your body may need more insulin while you are under stress due to infection, surgery, or injury. Certain medications (such as corticosteroids like hydrocortisone/prednisone, hormones such as birth control pills) may raise your blood sugar. Your dose may need to be adjusted. Consult your doctor for more details. Tell your doctor right away if any signs of high blood sugar occur.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor. If you become pregnant, think you may be pregnant, or plan to become pregnant, tell your doctor right away.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Is it safe during pregnancy or breast-feeding?

There are no adequate studies in women for determining risk when using this Diazoxide during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Please always consult with your doctor to weigh the potential benefits and risks before taking this Diazoxide. This Diazoxide is pregnancy risk category C according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

FDA pregnancy risk category reference below:

  • A=No risk,
  • B=No risk in some studies,
  • C=There may be some risk,
  • D=Positive evidence of risk,
  • X=Contraindicated,
  • N=Unknown

Side effects

What side effects can occur from Diazoxide?

Nausea, loss of appetite, stomach upset, and changes in sense of taste may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Abnormal growth of body hair, especially on the forehead/back/arms/legs, may occur. This is usually not permanent and will go away when the drug is stopped.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

This medication can cause sodium and water retention which can cause serious heart problems. Tell your doctor right away if any of these serious side effects occur: swelling of arms/legs/hands/feet, unexplained weight gain, shortness of breath, unusual tiredness.

This medication may cause your blood sugar to become too high. Checking your blood sugar and urine for sugar/ketones regularly and telling your doctor the results will help prevent this side effect. High blood sugar can be very serious and worsen quickly. Tell your doctor right away if any of these signs of very high blood sugar occur: need to urinate more often, unusual thirst, fruity breath odor, dizziness, unusual weight loss, deep/rapid breathing, bluish color of lips/skin, extreme drowsiness/confusion, weakness.

Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: easy bruising/bleeding, fainting, fast/pounding heartbeat, face/muscle twitching, toe/joint pain, unusual restlessness, muscle cramps/stiffness, shaking (tremor).

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, seek immediate medical attention if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

Not everyone experiences these side effects. There may be some side effects not listed above. If you have any concerns about a side-effect, please consult your doctor or pharmacist.

Interactions

What drugs may interact with Diazoxide?

Some products that may interact with this drug include: drugs for high blood pressure (such as enalapril, methyldopa, prazosin), “blood thinners” (such as warfarin), phenytoin.

This medication may interfere with certain laboratory tests (such as a glucagon test), possibly causing false test results. Make sure laboratory personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

Diazoxide may interact with other drugs that you are currently taking, which can change how your drug works or increase your risk for serious side effects. To avoid any potential drug interactions, you should keep a list of all the drugs you are using (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. For your safety, do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any drugs without your doctor’s approval.

Does food or alcohol interact with Diazoxide?

Diazoxide may interact with food or alcohol by altering the way the drug works or increase the risk for serious side effects. Please discuss with your doctor or pharmacist any potential food or alcohol interactions before using this drug.

What health conditions may interact with Diazoxide?

Diazoxide may interact with your health condition. This interaction may worsen your health condition or alter the way the drug works. It is important to always let your doctor and pharmacist know all the health conditions you currently have.

Dosage

The information provided is not a substitute for any medical advice. You should ALWAYS consult with your doctor or pharmacist before using this Diazoxide.

What is the dose of Diazoxide for an adult?

Usual Adult Dose for Hypertensive Emergency

IV: 1 to 3 mg/kg up to a maximum of 150 mg every 5 to 15 minutes, then every 4 to 24 hours. It should be administered in less than 30 seconds into a peripheral vein.

Usual Adult Dose for Hypoglycemia

3 to 8 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 or 12 hours. Higher dosages (up to 15 mg/kg/day) have been used in refractory hypoglycemia.

Dose Adjustments

The IV dose may be repeated at 5 to 15 minute intervals until blood pressure control has been achieved. It is usually unnecessary to continue for more than 5 days. Do not use for more than 10 days.

Precautions

Intravenous administration may produce a large decrease in blood pressure. Blood pressure should be monitored closely until it stabilizes and at least hourly thereafter.

Diazoxide causes sodium retention and is ineffective in pheochromocytoma.

What is the dose of Diazoxide for a child?

Usual Pediatric Dose for Hypertensive Emergency

1 to 5 mg/kg IV up to a maximum of 150 mg every 5 to 15 minutes, then every 4 to 24 hours. The dose should be administered in less than 30 seconds into a peripheral vein. Alternatively, 3 to 5 mg/kg infused over 30 minutes may result in less hypotension and hyperglycemia.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia:

less than 1 month: Initial: 10 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 hours; usual range: 5 to 15 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 hours

less than 1 year: Initial: 10 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 hours; usual range: 5 to 20 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 hours

1 year or older: Initial: 3 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 hours; usual range: 3 to 8 mg/kg/day orally in divided doses every 8 to 12 hours

Higher dosages (up to 15 mg/kg/day) have been used in refractory hypoglycemia.

Other Comments

Do not use in patients allergic to thiazides or other sulfonamide derivatives.

How is Diazoxide available?

Diazoxide is available in the following dosage forms and strengths:

  • Oral suspension
  • Tablet

What should I do in case of an emergency or overdose?

In case of an emergency or an overdose, call your local emergency services or go to your nearest emergency room.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

If you miss a dose of Diazoxide, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take your regular dose as scheduled. Do not take a double dose.

Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Sources

Review Date: January 22, 2018 | Last Modified: September 12, 2019

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