Definition

What is hyperdontia?

Hyperdontia is a condition that causes too many teeth to grow in your mouth. These extra teeth are sometimes called supernumerary teeth. They can grow anywhere in the curved areas where teeth attach to your jaw. This area is known as the dental arches.

The 20 teeth that grow in when you’re a child are known as primary, or deciduous, teeth. The 32 adult teeth that replace them are called permanent teeth. You can have extra primary or permanent teeth with hyperdontia, but extra primary teeth are more common.

How common is hyperdontia?

The prevalence of hyperdontia is between 1% and 4% of the population with a male to female ratio of 2:1; the majority of cases are limited to a single tooth. There have been reported cases of over 30 supernumerary teeth in one person, but such large numbers are rare. Please discuss with your doctor for further information.

Symptoms

What are the symptoms of hyperdontia?

The main symptom of hyperdontia is the growth of extra teeth directly behind or close to your usual primary or permanent teeth. Extra teeth are categorized based on their shape or location in the mouth.

Shapes of extra teeth include:

  • The tooth is shaped similarly to the type of tooth that it grows near.
  • The tooth has a tube or barrel-like shape.
  • Compound odontoma. The tooth is made up of several small, tooth-like growths near each other.
  • Complex odontoma. Rather than a single tooth, an area of tooth-like tissue grows in a disordered group.
  • Conical, or peg-shaped. The tooth is wide at the base and narrows out near the top, making it look sharp.

Locations of extra teeth include:

  • An extra tooth grows in the back of your mouth, next to one of your molars.
  • An extra tooth grows in line with your other molars, rather than around them.
  • An extra tooth grows behind or around your incisors, the four flat teeth at the front of your mouth used for biting. This is the most common type of extra tooth in people with hyperdontia.

Hyperdontia usually isn’t painful. However, sometimes the extra teeth can put pressure on your jaw and gums, making them swollen and painful. Overcrowding caused by hyperdontia can also make your permanent teeth look crooked.

There may be some symptoms not listed above. If you have any concerns about a symptom, please consult your doctor.

When should I see my doctor?

If you have any signs or symptoms listed above or have any questions, please consult with your doctor. Everyone’s body acts differently. It is always best to discuss with your doctor what is best for your situation.

Causes

What causes hyperdontia?

The cause of hyperdontia is not entirely clear. It is believed that there may be a genetic factor in hyperdontia consisting of an autosomal dominant trait with low penetrance (only sometimes producing supernumerary teeth in a carrier of the mutated gene). Other possible causes are environmental factors and overactivity of the dental lamina during tooth development. The dental lamina is a zone of cells that initiates the formation of the tooth germ, which forms the tooth.

Risk factors

What increases my risk for hyperdontia?

When a person does develop multiple supernumerary teeth, it often is associated with a variety of conditions or syndromes such as cleidocranial dysplasia, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and cleft lip and palate.

Diagnosis & treatment

The information provided is not a substitute for any medical advice. ALWAYS consult with your doctor for more information.

How is hyperdontia diagnosed?

Hyperdontia is easy to diagnose if the extra teeth have already grown in. If they haven’t fully grown in, they’ll still show up on a routine dental X-ray. Your dentist may also use a CT scan to get a more detailed look at your mouth, jaw, and teeth.

How is hyperdontia treated?

It is important to detect, evaluate, and treat supernumerary teeth as soon as possible since the additional teeth will present both cosmetic and functional problems for the affected individual. As a majority of supernumerary teeth cause clinical problems, treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when possible.

Lifestyle changes & home remedies

What are some lifestyle changes or home remedies that can help me manage hyperdontia?

The following lifestyles and home remedies might help you cope with hyperdontia:

Make sure to tell your doctor about any feelings of pain, discomfort, swelling, or weakness in your mouth if you have hyperdontia.

If you have any questions, please consult with your doctor to better understand the best solution for you.

Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Sources

Review Date: December 27, 2017 | Last Modified: December 27, 2017

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