What are chemical burns?
A chemical burn, also known as caustic burns, occurs when your skin or eyes come into contact with an irritant, such as an acid or a base. Bases are described as alkaline. They may cause a reaction on your skin or within your body. These burns can affect your internal organs if chemicals are swallowed.
How common are chemical burns?
Chemical burns are extremely common. It can affect patients at any age. It can be managed by reducing your risk factors. Please discuss with your doctor for further information.
What are the symptoms of chemical burns?
The symptoms of chemical burns can vary depending on how the burn occurred. A burn caused by a chemical you swallowed will cause different symptoms than burns that occur on your skin. The symptoms of a chemical burn will depend on:
- The length of time your skin was in contact with the chemical
- Whether the chemical was inhaled or swallowed
- Whether your skin had open cuts or wounds or was intact during contact
- The location of contact
- The amount and strength of chemical used
- Whether the chemical was a gas, liquid, or solid
For example, if the chemical was alkaline and you swallowed it, it will cause burns on the inside of your stomach. This may produce different symptoms than a chemical burn on your skin.
In general, however, the common symptoms associated with chemical burns include:
- Blackened or dead skin, which is mainly seen in chemical burns from acid
- Irritation, redness, or burning in the affected area
- Numbness or pain in the affected area
- A loss of vision or changes in vision if chemicals have come into contact with your eyes
Some of the following symptoms may also occur if you’ve swallowed a chemical:
- Irregular heartbeat
- Low blood pressure
- Cardiac arrest or heart attack
- Shortness of breath
- Muscle twitches
There may be some symptoms not listed above. If you have any concerns about a symptom, please consult your doctor.
When should I see my doctor?
If you have any signs or symptoms listed above or have any questions, please call your doctor immediately.
What causes chemical burns?
Acids and bases cause most chemical burns. Burns caused by chemicals can happen at school, work, or any place where you handle chemical materials. Some of the most common products that causes chemical burns are:
- Car battery acid
- Denture cleaners
- Teeth whitening products
- Pool chlorination products
What increases my risk for chemical burns?
People who are at the highest risk for chemical burns are infants, older adults, and people who are disabled. These groups may not be able to handle chemicals properly.
You may be at increased risk for chemical burns if you’re handling acids or other chemicals without assistance and you have decreased mobility.
Diagnosis & treatment
The information provided is not a substitute for any medical advice. ALWAYS consult with your doctor for more information.
How are chemical burns diagnosed?
Your doctor will make a diagnosis based on several factors. These may include:
- The level of pain in the affected area
- The amount of damage to the area
- The depth of the burn
- Signs of possible infection
- The amount of swelling present
How are chemical burns treated?
First aid should be given to chemical burns immediately if possible. This includes removing the chemical that caused the burn and rinsing the skin under running water for 10 to 20 minutes. If a chemical came into contact with your eyes, rinse your eyes continuously for at least 20 minutes before seeking emergency care.
Remove any clothing or jewelry contaminated by the chemical. Wrap the burned area loosely with a dry sterile dressing or a clean cloth if possible. If the burn is superficial, you can take an over-the-counter (OTC) pain reliever, such as aspirin. You should go to the emergency room immediately if the burn is more serious.
You should also go to the hospital right away if:
- The burn is larger than 3 inches in width or length
- The burn is on your face, hands, feet, groin, or buttocks
- The burn occurred over a major joint, such as your knee
- The pain can’t be controlled with OTC pain medications
- You have the signs and symptoms of shock, which include shallow breathing, dizziness, and low blood pressure
Depending on the severity of your condition, your doctor may use the following methods to treat your burn:
- Anti-itch medications
- Debridement, which involves cleaning or removing dirt and dead tissue
- Skin grafting, which involves attaching healthy skin from another part of the body to the burn wound
- Intravenous (IV) fluids
For Severe Burns
You’ll need burn rehabilitation if you’re severely burned. This type of rehabilitation may provide some of the following treatments:
- Skin replacement
- Pain management
- Cosmetic surgery
- Occupational therapy, which can help you redevelop everyday skills
- Patient education
Lifestyle changes & home remedies
What are some lifestyle changes or home remedies that can help me manage chemical burns?
You can prevent chemical burns by following safety procedures and taking precautions while handling chemical materials. These include:
- Keeping chemicals out of the reach of children
- Storing chemicals properly and safely after use
- Using chemicals in a well-ventilated area
- Leaving chemicals in their original containers with warning labels
- Avoiding the use of chemicals
- Avoiding mixing chemicals with other chemicals
- Only purchasing chemicals in protective containers
- Keeping chemicals away from food and drinks
- Wearing protective gear and clothing when using chemicals
If you have any questions, please consult with your doctor to better understand the best solution for you.
Hello Health Group does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
Chemical burns. https://www.healthline.com/health/chemical-burn-or-reaction#outlook8. Accessed October 25, 2017
Chemical burns. https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chemical-burns/basics/art-20056667. Accessed October 25, 2017
Review Date: October 25, 2017 | Last Modified: October 26, 2017